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Craniofacial Dimensions of Ijaw Children and Adolescents in Nigeria

Gabriel S. Oladipo, Chinagorom Esomonu, Iruoghene G. Osogba


Facial dimensions and the circumference of the head can be used in evaluating age, sex, and racial differences within a population. This study determined the mean head circumference and facial dimensions of 1120 children and adolescents of purely Ijaw origin. Male and female subjects with no anomalies in their facial features and head circumference were randomly selected from schools in Portharcort of Rivers State and Yenegoa of Bayelsa State in Nigeria; ages ranged from 3 to 18 years (560 males and 560 females). Nasal height, maxillary height, mandibular height, orofacial height, fa-cial height and head circumference were measured with a sliding caliper and measuring tape. Ijaw male subjects pre-sented with a mean facial height of 10.34 ± 2.3 cm, a nasal height of 3.99 ± 1.33 cm, a maxillary height of 2.14 ± 1.09 cm, a mandibular height of 4.21 ± 1.45 cm, an orofacial height of 6.36 ± 1.85 cm, and a head circumference of 53.6 ± 2.48 cm. In Ijaw female subjects the mean values for facial, nasal, maxillary, mandibular and orofacil heights were 9.90 ± 1.29 cm, 3.88 ± 0.55 cm, 1.97 ± 0.29 cm, 4.00 ± 0.56 cm, 5.97 ± 0.75 cm, respectively; the mean value for head circum-ference was 53.0 ± 03.22 cm. Statistical analysis (using the z score) demonstrated that males had significantly higher val-ues than females for all parameters (P < 0.05), indicating a sexual dimorphism. The data presented in this study could be potentially useful in forensic medicine, craniofacial surgery, and anthropology.

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